Energy Storage Storage might qualify for ITC if charged by renewables. Battery cost $2,900/kWh. 4.2 MW grid-connected residential storage deployed in 3Q17. 202% growth. US 50 GW storage in the next 10 years. PJM has the most utility-scale battery storage capacity, from 38 MW to 274 MW in 2016. Over 90% for frequency regulation. Battery will lose at least 40% of its capacity over 20 years. 1/3 residential solar PV is sold with a battery. Need standardisation to integrate storage Supply to meet EV demand. Mine infrastructure for battery potential, especially copper, nickel and cobalt. Need 4.1 MM tons of copper, 1.1 MM tons of nickel and 314,000 tons of cobalt. Cobalt production in Congo, Australia, Canada and Norway. Tempered by a lack of new mine projects, limited investment in the sector, fewer new projects and risk of mine disruptions.